The first step in understanding male fertility is getting basic information about their anatomy. Here are the organs and glands of the male reproductive system:

Scrotum: Sperm producing organ that contains testes. It helps maintain temperature, also ensuring normal sperm production.

Epididymis: A long coiled tube where sperm remains for 2-12 days. It helps sperm mature fully, helping them transport to the vas deferens.

Vas Deferens: A duct between epididymis and pelvis behind the bladder, helping transport sperm.

Seminal Vesicles: Tubular glands, located within the pelvis, which partly contribute to the seminal fluid and produce sugar fructose.

Prostate Gland: Located between the bladder and penis, it secrets additional fluid and enzymes that liquefy semen and nourish sperm.

Cowper’s Glands: Exocrine glands, located beyond the prostate at the base of the penile shaft in the urethra, adding an amount of lubricant to the seminal fluid right before ejaculation.

Penis: External intromittent organ that helps man deposit the seminal fluid into the vagina.

Testes: These are sperm-producing organs. Also known as gonads, they are oval in shape within the scrotum, helping produce testosterone and sperm cells.

Leydig Cells: Located adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes, these help produce testosterone.

Sertoli Cells: Somatic cells of the testis, these produce growth factors that facilitate and nourish sperm.

Seminiferous Tubules: Present within testes, these are the site of the germination maturation and transportation of the sperm cells. They store sperm for about three months.

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